The following is a list of complications stemming from diabetes or its treatment. Below each complication are its complications. All complications of diabetes and complications from complications indicate an increased risk of comorbidity and mortality.

HYPERGLYCEMIA – Hyperglycemia is the hallmark abnormality of diabetes.  Hyper means too much.  Glycemia means sugar in the blood. Blood touches everything.  High blood sugar damages everything blood touches.  In improperly treated or untreated diabetics a continuous or nearly continuous state of hyperglycemia wrecks everything.

        Neuropathy –   From the Latin literally means sick nerves.  Opathy means sick. Neuro means nerve.  In diabetic neuropathy the nerves of the body are damaged by too much sugar in the blood.  It often first becomes apparent in the lower extremities.  Numbness, tingling, loss of sensation and shooting pain in the feet and lower legs presents in individuals with neuropathy.

        Nephropathy –  Nephro means of or related to kidneys or their function.  In diabetic nephropathy the small blood vessels of the kidney are damaged by persistently elevated blood glucose levels or too much sugar in the blood.  If the damage becomes severe, loss of kidney function leads to kidney failure necessitating dialysis or transplant.

        Erectile Dysfunction – In diabetics persistently elevated blood sugar levels damage the small blood vessels of the penis causing the absence of erection.  This is also an early indicator of other small blood vessel, or microvascular complications.

        Retinopathy –  In diabetics, persistently elevated blood sugar levels damage small blood vessels in the retina leading to vision loss and blindness.

        Cardiomyopathy – In diabetics with persistently elevated blood sugar levels the heart muscle itself is damaged leading to an inability of the heart to pump blood effectively.

HYPERINSULINEMIA – Hyper means too much.  Insulinemia means insulin in the blood.  Too much insulin in the blood is dictated by insulin resistance in diabetics or by dietary over consumption of carbohydrate.

        Hypoglycemia –  Inappropriately high levels of insulin can cause hypoglycemia.  In fact hyperinsulinemia is the sole cause or a concomitant cause of all hypoglycemia.

        Coronary Artery Disease – Coronary artery disease is the narrowing of large blood vessels of the body which can lead to heart attack.  In CAD fatty substances build up in the blood narrowing the large blood vessels that feed the heart.  Hyperinsulinemia as dictated by high carbohydrate diets or insulin resistance raise serum triglyceride levels.  High serum triglyceride levels are know to contribute to the build up of fatty deposits which narrow the arteries particularly when high triglyceride levels are accompanied by hyperglycemia.  It is like millions of microscopic ho-hoes coursing through your veins.

        Retinopathy – Sick retinas are caused when too much insulin pushes blood through the  small blood vessels of the retina already damaged by too much sugar in the blood.  Too much insulin in the blood as dictated by insulin resistance or insulin resistance as secondary to hypercarbohydration also raises total cholesterol in diabetics which is believed to also contribute to retinopathy.

HYPOGLYCEMIA – In untreated or improperly treated diabetics, particularly those treated with high carbohydrate diets, inappropriately large doses of insulin or other blood sugar lowering drugs can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels.  When blood sugar falls too low an individual can experience a number of symptoms including dizziness, incoherence, sweating, shaking, weakness, and uncontrollable hunger.

         Accidental Injury – Moderately low blood sugar can present possible loss of consciousness or temporary functional brain damage leading to accidental injury.

        Death – In rare instances severe hypoglycemia can cause instant death.


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